Native to Malaysia, the leaves of the kratom plant are traditionally crushed and made into tea to treat pain as well as heroin or morphine dependence
and possibly reduce withdrawal cravings. Kratom also found a following overseas. According to the American Kratom Association
, there are 3 million to 5 million users in the US.
The supplement can be found in head shops and gas stations sold as powders, pills, capsules or even energy drinks. It is very loosely regulated by the FDA.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
found a tenfold increase in calls about kratom to poison control centers over a five-year period, from 26 in 2010 to 263 in 2015. However, while 7% of the calls were for serious side effects, including one death, most reported minimal to moderate side effects.
But the FDA has growing concerns about the herb, pointing to 44 deaths
associated with the plant in its Adverse Event Reporting System.
In 2016, the Drug Enforcement Administration announced its intention
to temporarily list kratom as aSchedule I
controlled substance, which would put it in the same category as heroin or LSD.
But after a public outcry, including from some members of Congress, the DEA withdrew its plan. Instead, the agency requested public comment about the plant and called for a scientific review from the FDA. The DEA has not taken any action since then, but lists kratom as a drug of concern.
To better understand the plant, the FDA conducted computer modeling that predicted that many of the chemical compounds found in kratom bind to the same receptors as narcotic drugs such as oxycodone and hydrocodone.
“The model shows us that kratom compounds are predicted to affect the body just like opioids,” Gottlieb said in Tuesday’s statement. “Based on the scientific information in the literature and further supported by our computational modeling and the reports of its adverse effects in humans, we feel confident in calling compounds found in kratom, opioids.”
Researchers question FDA
But researchers who study the plant, including Scott Hemby,
say the agency is making too broad of a statement. Hemby chairs the Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences at High Point University in North Carolina and has been researching the abuse liability or “addictiveness” of kratom.
It comes as no surprise to Hemby that the kratom compounds bind to opioid receptors; he’s seen the same thing.
Hemby has been studying kratom’s two principal alkaloids, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine.
He found that these chemicals can bond to the body’s opioid receptors and act very much like opioids do, providing some pain relief and causing a release of dopamine, but at a much more toned-down level than prescription pills or heroin……
Full article: https://www.cnn.com/2018/02/06/health/fda-kratom-opioid-bn/index.html